آپشن help


سومین منبع مستندات لینوکس help است. بسیاری از کامندهای لینوکس حاوی توضیحاتی کوتاه هستند که با استفاده از آپشن های help-- و یا h- می‌توان به آن‌ها دسترسی پیدا نمود. به طور مثال، برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در مورد کامند man، می‌توانید از دستور زیر استفاده کنید:

man --help

به عنوان خروجی دستور فوق داریم:

Usage: man [OPTION...] [SECTION] PAGE...

  -C, --config-file=FILE     use this user configuration file
  -d, --debug                emit debugging messages
  -D, --default              reset all options to their default values
      --warnings[=WARNINGS]  enable warnings from groff

 Main modes of operation:
  -f, --whatis               equivalent to whatis
  -k, --apropos              equivalent to apropos
  -K, --global-apropos       search for text in all pages
  -l, --local-file           interpret PAGE argument(s) as local filename(s)
  -w, --where, --path, --location
                             print physical location of man page(s)
  -W, --where-cat, --location-cat
                             print physical location of cat file(s)

  -c, --catman               used by catman to reformat out of date cat pages
  -R, --recode=ENCODING      output source page encoded in ENCODING

 Finding manual pages:
  -L, --locale=LOCALE        define the locale for this particular man search
  -m, --systems=SYSTEM       use manual pages from other systems
  -M, --manpath=PATH         set search path for manual pages to PATH

  -S, -s, --sections=LIST    use colon separated section list

  -e, --extension=EXTENSION  limit search to extension type EXTENSION

  -i, --ignore-case          look for pages case-insensitively (default)
  -I, --match-case           look for pages case-sensitively

      --regex                show all pages matching regex
      --wildcard             show all pages matching wildcard

      --names-only           make --regex and --wildcard match page names only,
                             not descriptions

  -a, --all                  find all matching manual pages
  -u, --update               force a cache consistency check

      --no-subpages          don't try subpages, e.g. 'man foo bar' => 'man
                             foo-bar'

 Controlling formatted output:
  -P, --pager=PAGER          use program PAGER to display output
  -r, --prompt=STRING        provide the `less' pager with a prompt

  -7, --ascii                display ASCII translation of certain latin1 chars
  -E, --encoding=ENCODING    use selected output encoding
      --no-hyphenation, --nh turn off hyphenation
      --no-justification,                              --nj   turn off justification
  -p, --preprocessor=STRING  STRING indicates which preprocessors to run:
                             e - [n]eqn, p - pic, t - tbl,
g - grap, r - refer, v - vgrind

  -t, --troff                use groff to format pages
  -T, --troff-device[=DEVICE]   use groff with selected device

  -H, --html[=BROWSER]       use www-browser or BROWSER to display HTML output
  -X, --gxditview[=RESOLUTION]   use groff and display through gxditview
                             (X11):
                             -X = -TX75, -X100 = -TX100, -X100-12 = -TX100-12
  -Z, --ditroff              use groff and force it to produce ditroff

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --usage                give a short usage message
  -V, --version              print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

Report bugs to cjwatson@debian.org.

آپشن help-- به عنوان مرجعی خلاصه و مفید برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در مورد کامندهای لینوکس است که به مراتب از مستندات man و info سریعتر است اما حاوی اطلاعات به مراتب کمتری است!

دستور help
به منظور دستیابی به چکیده یی از کامندهای از پیش تعریف شده در لینوکس، می‌توانید دستور زیر را در ترمینال وارد سازید:

help

به عنوان خروجی دستور فوق داریم:

GNU bash, version 4.3.42(1)-release (i686-pc-linux-gnu)
These shell commands are defined internally.  Type `help' to see this list.
Type `help name' to find out more about the function `name'.
Use `info bash' to find out more about the shell in general.
Use `man -k' or `info' to find out more about commands not in this list.

A star (*) next to a name means that the command is disabled.

 job_spec [&]                                                                                                                    history [-c] [-d offset] [n] or history -anrw [filename] or history -ps arg [arg...]
 (( expression ))                                                                                                                if COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; [ elif COMMANDS; then COMMANDS; ]... [ else COMMANDS; ] fi
 . filename [arguments]                                                                                                          jobs [-lnprs] [jobspec ...] or jobs -x command [args]
 :                                                                                                                               kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] pid | jobspec ... or kill -l [sigspec]
 [ arg... ]                                                                                                                      let arg [arg ...]
 [[ expression ]]                                                                                                                local [option] name[=value] ...
 alias [-p] [name[=value] ... ]                                                                                                  logout [n]
 bg [job_spec ...]                                                                                                               mapfile [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback] [-c quantum] [array]
 bind [-lpsvPSVX] [-m keymap] [-f filename] [-q name] [-u name] [-r keyseq] [-x keyseq:shell-command] [keyseq:readline-functio>  popd [-n] [+N | -N]
 break [n]                                                                                                                       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
 builtin [shell-builtin [arg ...]]                                                                                               pushd [-n] [+N | -N | dir]
 caller [expr]                                                                                                                   pwd [-LP]
 case WORD in [PATTERN [| PATTERN]...) COMMANDS ;;]... esac                                                                      read [-ers] [-a array] [-d delim] [-i text] [-n nchars] [-N nchars] [-p prompt] [-t timeout] [-u fd] [name ...]
 cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]                                                                                                    readarray [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback] [-c quantum] [array]
 command [-pVv] command [arg ...]                                                                                                readonly [-aAf] [name[=value] ...] or readonly -p
 compgen [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o option]  [-A action] [-G globpat] [-W wordlist]  [-F function] [-C command] [-X filterpat] [-P pr>  return [n]
 complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-pr] [-DE] [-o option] [-A action] [-G globpat] [-W wordlist]  [-F function] [-C command] [-X filte>  select NAME [in WORDS ... ;] do COMMANDS; done
 compopt [-o|+o option] [-DE] [name ...]                                                                                         set [-abefhkmnptuvxBCHP] [-o option-name] [--] [arg ...]
 continue [n]                                                                                                                    shift [n]
 coproc [NAME] command [redirections]                                                                                            shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
 declare [-aAfFgilnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]                                                                                 source filename [arguments]
 dirs [-clpv] [+N] [-N]                                                                                                          suspend [-f]
 disown [-h] [-ar] [jobspec ...]                                                                                                 test [expr]
 echo [-neE] [arg ...]                                                                                                           time [-p] pipeline
 enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]                                                                                    times
 eval [arg ...]                                                                                                                  trap [-lp] [[arg] signal_spec ...]
 exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments ...]] [redirection ...]                                                                true
 exit [n]                                                                                                                        type [-afptP] name [name ...]
 export [-fn] [name[=value] ...] or export -p                                                                                    typeset [-aAfFgilrtux] [-p] name[=value] ...
 false                                                                                                                           ulimit [-SHabcdefilmnpqrstuvxT] [limit]
 fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last] or fc -s [pat=rep] [command]                                                                umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
 fg [job_spec]                                                                                                                   unalias [-a] name [name ...]
 for NAME [in WORDS ... ] ; do COMMANDS; done                                                                                    unset [-f] [-v] [-n] [name ...]
 for (( exp1; exp2; exp3 )); do COMMANDS; done                                                                                   until COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done
 function name { COMMANDS ; } or name () { COMMANDS ; }                                                                          variables - Names and meanings of some shell variables
 getopts optstring name [arg]                                                                                                    wait [-n] [id ...]
 hash [-lr] [-p pathname] [-dt] [name ...]                                                                                       while COMMANDS; do COMMANDS; done
 help [-dms] [pattern ...]                                                                                                       { COMMANDS ; }
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